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Monday, August 10, 2020 | History

2 edition of Chemical dispersants for the control of oil spills found in the catalog.

Chemical dispersants for the control of oil spills

ASTM Symposium on Dispersants (1977 Williamsburg, Va.)

Chemical dispersants for the control of oil spills

a symposium

by ASTM Symposium on Dispersants (1977 Williamsburg, Va.)

  • 86 Want to read
  • 36 Currently reading

Published by The Society in Philadelphia, Pa .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Oil spills -- Cleanup -- Congresses.,
  • Dispersing agents -- Congresses.

  • Edition Notes

    Includes bibliographical references and index.

    Statementsponsored by ASTM Committee F-20 on Spill Control Systems American Society for Testing and Materials, Williamsburg, Va., 4-5 Oct. 1977 ; L. T. McCarthy, Jr., G. P. Lindblom, and H. F. Walter, editors.
    GenreCongresses.
    SeriesASTM special technical publication ; 659, ASTM special technical publication ;, 659.
    ContributionsMcCarthy, Leo T., Lindblom, G. P., Walter, H. F., ASTM Committee F-20 on Spill Control Systems.
    Classifications
    LC ClassificationsTD427.P4 A19 1977
    The Physical Object
    Pagination307 p. :
    Number of Pages307
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL4744004M
    ISBN 100465900024
    LC Control Number78058199

    DISPERSANTS AND THEIR ROLE IN OIL SPILL RESPONSE 4 It is common knowledge that oil and water do not mix easily. Spilled oil floats on the sea surface in calm conditions. The mixing action of the waves can cause oil and water to combine in two ways: Natural dispersion: Waves will break up the oil slick and form oil droplets. EPA’s proposal would revise its existing regulation on the use of dispersants and other chemical and biological agents on oil spills in U.S. waters.

    The chemical dispersants do not themselves destroy oil. They vary considerably in toxicity, effectiveness and ability to stabilize the oil after extended periods of time. Technology for proper application of dispersants over large oil slicks with necessary mixing is currently lacking. Dispersed oil, a study found, causes cardiac problems in tuna. 1 To certain plankton species, a Corexit–oil mix is 52 times more toxic than either substance on its own, another study concluded. 2 Dispersants could even cause harmful algal blooms – toxic red tides – by killing off the organisms that feed on the algae. 3 Other.

      Oil spills are a significant source of hydrocarbon inputs into the ocean. In response to oil spills, chemical dispersants are applied to the oil-contaminated seawater to disperse surface slicks into smaller droplets that are presumed to be more bioavailable to microorganisms. We provide evidence that chemical dispersants applied to either deep water or surface water from Cited by: Dispersants may be used on the beach only after the gross pollution has been removed, care taken to prevent the penetration of dispersants into beach material and marine life protected against prolonged exposure to dispersants. Chemical dispersants are effective only if applied immediately after the spill, as most crude oil at sea rapidly.


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Chemical dispersants for the control of oil spills by ASTM Symposium on Dispersants (1977 Williamsburg, Va.) Download PDF EPUB FB2

Chemical dispersants for the control of oil spills: a symposium Leo T. McCarthy, G. Lindblom, H. Walter, ASTM Committee F on Spill Control Systems Snippet view - Common terms and phrases4/5(1).

The book considers how chemical dispersants work for oil spills, the properties and chemistry of oils (including weathering state), the variables that affect dispersant performance, and the relationships between laboratory methods and field situations.

Book: Oil spill chemical dispersants: Research, experience, and recommendations Title: Oil spill chemical dispersants: Research, experience, and recommendations Full Record.

Chemical dispersants for the control of oil spills. Philadelphia, Pa.: The Society, © (OCoLC) Material Type: Conference publication: Document Type: Book: All Authors / Contributors: Leo T McCarthy; G P Lindblom; H F Walter; ASTM.

CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS AND THEIR ROLE IN OIL SPILL RESPONSE. Larissa J. Graham, Christine Hale, Emily Maung-Douglass, Stephen Sempier, LaDon Swann, and Monica Wilson. Nearly two million gallons of dispersants were used at the water’s surface and a mile below the surface to combat oil during the.

Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Although called for in the Oil Pollution Act of as a tool for minimizing the impact of oil spills, the use of chemical dispersants has long been controversial. This book reviews the adequacy of existing information and ongoing research regarding the effectiveness of dispersants as an oil spill response technique, as well as the effect of Manufacturer: National Academies Press.

An oil dispersant is a mixture of emulsifiers and solvents that helps break oil into small droplets following an oil droplets are easier to disperse throughout a water volume, and small droplets may be more readily biodegraded by microbes in the water.

Dispersant use involves a trade-off between exposing coastal life to surface oil and exposing aquatic life to dispersed oil. Oil dispersants are a blend of chemical compounds used to break down oil slicks into smaller drops of oil, making them easily degraded by natural processes or diluted by large volumes of water.

The study estimated the likelihood of exposure to dispersants, based on the types of jobs the workers did and where. Dispersants are one of those things that are talked about a lot in the context of oil spills, but in reality used pretty rarely.

Over my more than 20 years in spill response, I've only been involved with a handful of oil spills that used dispersants. Oil dispersants (chemical agents such as surfactants, solvents, and other compounds) are used to reduce the effect of oil spills by changing the chemical and physical properties of the oil.

By enhancing the amount of oil that physically mixes into the water, dispersants can reduce the potential that a surface slick will contaminate shoreline. Dispersants work much like the detergent soap that you use to clean grease from your dishes (but dispersants are less toxic).

They contain molecules with a water-compatible ("hydrophilic") end and an oil-compatible ("lipophilic") end. These molecules attach to the oil, reducing the interfacial tension between oil and water, breaking up the oil. @article{osti_, title = {Oil spill dispersants: Mechanisms of action and laboratory tests}, author = {Clayton, J.R.

and Payne, J.R. and Farlow, J.S. and Sarwar, C.}, abstractNote = {The purpose of the report is to summarize the most current information from the available literature for the mechanism of action of chemical dispersants (or how they work) for oil spills, variables that.

Factors Affecting Toxicity of Chemical Dispersants and Dispersed Oil As discussed in later chapters, there is a wide diversity of use of chemical dispersants for the control of oil spills in various countries. A range of opinion exists concerning the biological effects resulting from the use or proposed use of chemical dispersants.

"[Dispersants] make the oil more soluble in water, so it won't just sit on the surface," said Savitz. "Whether that's good or bad depends on whether you're a fish or a seabird.".

The Obama administration has ordered BP to use a less toxic form of chemical dispersant to break up the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The decision, first reported in the Washington Post, comes.

Gulf Spill Cleanup Chemicals May Cause New Environmental Concerns. On Thursday BP began using the chemical compounds to dissolve the crude oil, both on the surface and deep below, deploying an.

Chemical dispersants for the control of oil spills. Philadelphia, Pa.: The Society, © (DLC) (OCoLC) Material Type: Conference publication, Document, Internet resource: Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File: All Authors / Contributors: Leo T McCarthy; G P Lindblom; H F Walter; ASTM Committee F on Spill Control.

BP's Web site gives the impression that dispersants "clean and control" ocean oil spills by putting the oil in a state where "it becomes a feast for the naturally-occurring microbes that inhabit the ocean." But dispersants do not clean the water, nor do they remove oil at all, but rather re-arrange where it exists, and change where it goes.

The symposium on Chemical Dispersants for the Control of Oil Spills was held at Williamsburg, Va., Oct. The symposium was sponsored by Committee F20 on Spill Control Systems, American Society for Testing and Materials. McCarthy. The chemical dispersant used to counteract the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in may not be as harmful to fish as first thought, says new research from Queen's professor.

Oil Spill Chemical Dispersants: Research, Experience and Recommendations (Astm Special Technical Publication) on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Oil Spill Chemical Dispersants: Research, Experience and Recommendations (Astm Format: Hardcover.

Oil spills are a significant source of hydrocarbon inputs into the ocean. In response to oil spills, chemical dispersants are applied to the oil-contaminated seawater to disperse surface slicks into smaller droplets that are presumed to be more bioavailable to microorganisms.

We provide evidence that chemical dispersants applied to either deep water or surface water from .Surface Chemical Aspects of Oil Spill-dispersant Behavior. Dispersants are widely used in many parts of the world to deal with oil spills on the ocean.

The objective of adding the dispersant is to emulsify the oil slick into the water column, which prevents .